Multiple Myeloma

Multiple Myeloma is a relatively rare cancer of the bone. It results from the abnormal growth of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Plasma cells normally produce antibodies. As these abnormal or malignant plasma cells multiply, they produce enormous quantities of abnormal antibodies. These abnormal antibodies accumulate in the blood and urine. As the plasma cell tumor grows, it also destroys the surrounding bone. These events lead to bone pain, kidney damage, and a compromised immune system.
Cancer occurs when cells in the body (in this case plasma cells) divide without control or order. Normally, cells divide in a regulated manner. If cells keep dividing uncontrollably when new cells are not needed, a mass of tissue forms, called a growth or tumor. The term cancer refers to malignant tumors, which can invade nearby tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor does not invade or spread.

Causes

The cause of Multiple Mmyeloma is unknown.

Risk Factors

A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition.
  • Age: 50 or older
  • Race: Black
  • Farmers exposed to various pesticides

Symptoms

Symptoms of early stage Multiple Myeloma include:
  • Persistent bone pain, often severe. It is most commonly in the back but also in the limbs or ribs.
  • Fatigue
When the disease progresses, symptoms may include:
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Broken bones
  • Repeated infections
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Abnormal bleeding
  • Headache
  • Visual problems
  • Confusion

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam. Diagnosis is based on:
  • X-rays to check for any damage to bones
  • Blood and urine tests to check for high levels of antibody proteins
  • Bone marrow aspiration or biopsy removal of a sample of bone marrow tissue to test for myeloma cells
In addition, other blood and urine tests will be ordered to assess the various conditions associated with Multiple Myeloma including:
  • Anemia
  • Low levels of other blood cells (white blood cells and platelets)
  • Elevated calcium levels (blood and urine)
  • Evidence of kidney damage and bone destruction

Treatment

Once cancer is found, staging tests are performed to find out if the cancer has spread and, if so, to what extent. While treatment is sometimes capable of slowing the progression of the Multiple Myeloma, complete remission is rare. Treatment is also important for the control of symptoms. Treatment depends on your symptoms and the stage of your cancer.
Treatments include:
Chemotherapy - the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be given in many forms including: pill, injection, and via a catheter. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body killing mostly cancer cells, but also some healthy cells. The most initial chemotherapeutic agents are melphalan and prednisone.
Other Medications

Strong oral analgesics to relieve bone pain
If anemia is present, erythropoietin to increase the amount of red blood cells
Prednisone and disphonate drugs to treat high calcium levels
Antibiotics to treat infections
Radiation Therapy (Radiotherapy) the use of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation is most often given to relieve bone pain, and by itself is not considered curative.
Surgery - to remove a multiple myeloma tumor- that causes pain or other debilitating symptoms. Surgery is not curative.
Red Blood Cell Transfusions for patients with severe anemia
Peripheral Stem Cell Transplant giving patients immature, healthy blood cells to replace bone marrow cells that are destroyed during total body radiation and high-dose chemotherapy.
Lifestyle Measures to help reduce symptoms and maintain overall health:
  • Stay as active as possible.
  • Drink plenty of fluids to help avoid dehydration and kidney damage.
  • Eat a balanced diet.
  • Do not take high doses of vitamins.

Prevention

There are no guidelines for preventing Multiple Myeloma because the cause is unknown.